Ras Muhammad National Park

Announcement Date1983
The protectorate Area850 km²
The protectorate TypeWorld Heritage Protected Area
Distance from Cairo446 km

Ras Muhammad National Park was proclaimed protection from fishing and other human activities after the Sinai Peninsula was restored to Egypt. Some fishing practices, such as employing dynamite and knives, were also having an effect on the coral reef and fish populations.

The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) designated the region as a marine reserve in 1983 to conserve marine and terrestrial animals. The park was also created to defend against the urban encroachment caused by Sharm El Sheikh and other coastal development. The name directly translates to “Muhammad’s Head,” where “head” refers to “headland.” The name is claimed to have come from the fact that the contour of the cliff, when viewed from the side, resembles the profile of a bearded man’s face, with horizontal hard strata giving the nose and bearded chin.

Ras Muhammad National Park is situated at the intersection of the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba. The eastern edge of Ras Muhammad Protected Area is a rocky wall that connects to the gulf water, where coral reefs can be found. There is also a 250-meter-long mangrove waterway that connects Ras Muhammad Peninsula to Elbayra Island.

Ras Muhammad Area is distinguished by the presence of coral coastlines in the depths of the ocean surrounding Ras Muhammad, as well as the ecological collapse of colorful fish, sea turtles, and uncommon sea animals. Ras Muhammad is surrounded by coral reefs on all sides by the sea. They have a distinct formation that has a significant influence on the natural life of the area. The land falls, sometimes known as “earthquakes,” created water caverns beneath the island. The area is also home to a variety of notable birds and animals, including the Nubian ibex in rocky places, as well as tiny mammals, reptiles, and insects that only show at night. The area is also home to a variety of significant species, including herons and seagulls.


Ras Mohammad National Park has a fairly arid environment, with barely a little rain in the winter. Summer temperatures frequently approach 40 °C (104 °F), with lows around 27 °C (81 °F). During the winter, temperatures are warm, with daytime highs of approximately 23 °C (73 °F) and lows around 14 °C (56 °F).

Ecology Of Ras Muhammad National Park

Coral reefs of the fringing and hermatypic types can be found close to the seashore around Ras Muhammad. In the Ras Muhammad area, there are about 220 different coral species, with 125 of them being soft coral. In most instances, coral reefs are 50 to 100 cm below the water surface and have a width of 30 to 50 meters. The coral reef is 8 to 9 kilometers wide in some places along the western coast. Divers go to Shark Reef and Yolanda Reef, two prominent coral reef locations in the park. Divers also flock to the wreckage of the SS Thistlegorm, which lies off the shore of Ras Muhammad.

Acacia trees and doum palms (Hyphaene thebaica) line the wadi mouths on the Ras Muhammad peninsula. Ras Muhammad also has ephermal plants and Poaceae.

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